Purchase the book on using the IGDIs. Image hyperlink leads to Brookes Publishing website.Publications

There is substantial evidence supporting the use of IGDIs in infant-toddler programs. In addition to our IGDI book published by Brookes, the following peer-reviewed articles provide theoretical and empirical evidence demonstrating how IGDIs can be used to improve infant-toddler programs through 1) efficient progress monitoring, 2) data-based decision making, and 3) outcome reporting to parents, teachers, specialists, funding agencies, and other key stakeholders.

Technical Soundness of IGDIs

Early Communication Indicator

Bavin, E. L., Sarant, J., Hackworth, N. J., Bennetts, S. K., Buzhardt, J., Fan, J. I. A., … & Peterson, C. (2020). Modelling the early expressive communicative trajectories of infants/toddlers with early cochlear implants. Journal of Child Language, 1-21.

Buzhardt, J., Greenwood, C., Hackworth, N., Jia, F., Bennetts, S., Walker, D., Matthews, J. (2019). Cross-Cultural Exploration of Growth in Expressive Communication of English-Speaking Infants and Toddlers. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 48, 284–294.

Greenwood, C., Buzhardt, J., Walker, D., Jia, F., & Carta, J. (2019).  Criterion Validity of the Early Communication Indicator for Infants and Toddlers.  Assessment for Effective Intervention. Doi:  10.1177/1534508418824154.

Greenwood, C., Buzhardt, J., Walker, D., Anderson, R., Howard, W., & Carta, J. (2011). Program-level Influences on the Measurement of Early Communication of Infants and Toddlers in Early Head Start. Journal of Early Intervention, 33, 110-134.

Greenwood , C. R., Carta, J. J., Walker , D., Hughes, K., & Weathers, M. (2006). Preliminary investigations of the application of the Early Communication Indicator (ECI) for infants and toddlers. Journal of Early Intervention, 28, 178 -196.

Greenwood, C., Walker, D., & Buzhardt, J. (2010). The Early Communication Indicator (ECI) for Infants and Toddlers: Early Head Start Growth Norms from Two States. Journal of Early Intervention, 32(5), 310-334.

Greenwood, C. R., Walker, D., Buzhardt, J., Howard, W. J., McCune, L., & Anderson, R. (2013). Evidence of a continuum in foundational expressive communication skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 540-554.

Greenwood, C. R., Walker, D., Buzhardt, J., McCune, L., & Howard, W. J. (2013). Advancing the construct validity of the Early Communication Indicator (ECI) for infants and toddlers: Equivalence of growth trajectories across two Early Head Start samples. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 743-758.

Luze, G. J., Linebarger, D. L., Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., Walker, D., Leitschuh, C., & Atwater, J. B. (2001). Developing a general outcome measure of growth in expressive communication of infants and toddlers. School Psychology Review, 30(3), 383-406.

Early Problem Solving Indicator

Greenwood, C. R., Walker, D., Carta, J. J., & Higgins, S. (2006). Developing a general outcome measure of growth in the cognitive abilities of children 1 to 4 years old: The Early Problem-Solving Indicator. School Psychology Review, 35(4), 535-551.

Early Movement Indicator

Greenwood, C. R., Luze, G. J., Cline, G., Kuntz, S., & Leitschuh, C. (2002). Developing a general outcome measure of growth in movement for infants and toddlers. Topics Early Childhood Special Education, 22(3), 143-157.

Greenwood, C.R., Walker, D., Buzhardt, J., Irvin, D., Schnitz, A.G., & Fan, J. (2018).  Update on the Early Movement Indicator (EMI) for Infants and Toddlers.  Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 38(2), 105-117.

Early Social Indicator

Carta, J. J., Greenwood, C. R., Luze, G. J., Cline, G., & Kuntz, S. (2004). Developing a general outcome measure of growth in social skills for infants and toddlers. Journal of Early Intervention, 26 (2), 91-114.

Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., Schnitz, A. G., Higgins, S., Buzhardt, J., Walker, D., … & Irvin, D. (2020). Progress Toward an Early Social Indicator for Infants and Toddlers. Journal of Early Intervention. Doi: 10.1177/1053815120945021.

 

The MOD’s Effect on Child Outcomes when Using IGDIs

Buzhardt, J., Greenwood, C., Jia, F., Walker, D., Schneider, N., Larson, A., Valdovinos, M., and McConnell, S. (2020). Technology to Guide Data-driven Intervention Decisions: Effects on Young Children at Risk for Language Delay. Exceptional Children. Doi: 10.1177/0014402920938003

Buzhardt, J., Greenwood, C., Walker, D., Carta, J., Terry, B., Garrett, M. (2010). A Web-based Tool to Support Data-based Early Intervention Decision Making. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 29 (4), 201-213.

Buzhardt, J., Greenwood, C., Walker, D., Anderson, R., Howard, W., Carta, J. (2011). Effects of Web-Based Support on Early Head Start Home Visitors’ Use of Evidence-Based Intervention Decision Making and Growth in Children’s Expressive Communication. NHSA Dialog: A Research-to-Practice Journal for the Early Childhood Field, 14 (3), 121-146.

Buzhardt, J., Walker, D., Greenwood, C., Jia, F., Schnitz, A., Higgins, S., Montagna, D. & Muehe, C. (2018). Web-based Support for Data-based Decision Making: Effect of Intervention Implementation on Children’s Communication. Journal of Early Intervention, 40(3), 246-267.

Walker, D., Carta, J. J., Greenwood, C. R., & Buzhardt, J. (2008). The Use of Individual Growth and Developmental Indicators for Progress Monitoring and Intervention Decision Making in Early Education. Exceptionality, 16 (1), 33-47.

 

Best Practices for Using Assessments in Infant-Toddler Programs

Carta, J. J. (2002). An early childhood special education research agenda in a culture of accountability for results. Journal of Early Intervention, 25(2), 102-104.

Carta, J. J., Greenwood, C. R., Walker, D., Kaminski, R., Good, R., McConnell, S., & McEvoy, M. (2002). Individual growth and development indicators (IGDIs): Assessment that guides intervention for young children. Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series, 4, 15-28.

Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., Baggett, K., Buzhardt, J., Walker, D., & Terry, B. (2007). Best practices in integrating response-to-intervention concepts into early childhood systems. In A. Thomas, J. Grimes & J. Gruba (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V pp. 535-548. Washington DC: National Association of School Psychology.

Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., & Walker, D. (2005). Individual growth and development indicators (IGDIs): Tools for assessing intervention results for infants and toddlers. In B. Heward & et al. (Eds.), Focus on Behavior Analysis in Education: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities (Chapter 6) (pp. 103-124). Columbus, OH: Pearson/Prentice-Hall.

Greenwood, C. R., Luze, G. J., & Carta, J. J. (2002). Assessment of intervention results with infants and toddlers. In A. Thomas, & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology IV (Vol. 2, pp. 1219-1230). Washington DC: National Association of School Psychology.

Hughes‑Belding, K., Luze, G. J., & Walter, M. C. (2020, April). Evaluating Implementation of Infant/Toddler IGDIs for Progress Monitoring by Practitioners in Part C Programs. In Child & Youth Care Forum. New York, NY: Springer.

McEvoy, M. A., Priest, J. S., Kaminski, R., Carta, J. J., Greenwood, C. R., McConnell, S. R., Good, R. H., Walker, D., & Shinn, M. (2001). General growth outcomes: Wait! There’s more! Journal of Early Intervention, 24(3), 191-192.

Missal, K., N., Carta, J. J., McConnell, S., Walker, D., & Greenwood, C. R. (2008). Using individual growth and development indicators to measure early language and literacy. Infants and young Children, 21(3), 241-253.